Lung Squeeze & DCI in Breath-Hold Diving

Dr Danilo Cialoni is a medical doctor and champion Breath-hold diver. He is also a leading researcher in Breath-hold diving and Echocardiography.

His work with the DAN Europe Foundation has played a significant role in understanding two major challenges in Breath-Hold Diving: Lung Squeeze and Taravana or DCI in Breath-Hold Diving.
During a DAN Southern Africa Research Workshop at False Bay Divers from 10-13 February 2016, Dr Cialoni explained that:
  • More than 25% of Breath-Hold divers are genetically predisposed to lung squeeze. These genetic risk factors can be identified. There is also genetic overlap between individuals vulnerable to Lung Squeeze, Immersion and Exercise-related Pulmonary Edema and High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE). His recommendation is that individuals who are have persisting breathlessness after Breath-Hold Dives should have a high index of suspicion that they may be suffering from lung-squeeze and that they should perform shallow "work-up" dives, contrary to the current practice of minimal work-up before doing deep dives. 
  • DCI can affect Breath-Hold divers, and this may cause serious Brain DCI problems called Taravana. He shows how he has been able to actually record decompression-related venous gas emboli in the right chamber of the heart of a breath-hold diver on ascent - while still underwater -- after a Breath-Hold dive to 42 meters! Based on his findings, his recommendation is that Breath-Hold athletes maintain surface intervals of at least 3 to 4 times the duration of their BH dives to ensure adequate outgasing.

To hear his presentation, click here: BREATH-HOLD DIVING - HEMOPTYSIS & DCI RESEARCH FINDINGS
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