Hepatitis

I contracted Hepatitis a few years ago. Otherwise I'm healthy and would like to learn to dive. What are my options?
Condition: Hepatitis A -- formerly called infectious hepatitis, is most common in children in developing countries, but it is seen frequently in adults in the Western world.

Hepatitis B -- formerly called serum hepatitis, it is the most common form of hepatitis, with 300 million carriers in the world and an estimated 1.2 million carriers in the United States.

Hepatitis C -- formerly called non-A, non-B hepatitis. More than 3.9 million Americans are carriers of the virus.

Hepatitis D -- formerly called delta hepatitis, is found mainly in intravenous drug users who are carriers of the hepatitis B virus, which is necessary for the hepatitis D virus to spread.

Hepatitis E -- formerly called enteric or epidemic non-A, non-B hepatitis, its symptoms resemble those of hepatitis A. It is caused by a virus commonly found in the Indian Ocean area, Africa and in underdeveloped countries.

Little is known of the three and possibly five other viruses identified recently. Other viruses, especially members of the herpes virus family, including the cold sore virus, chicken pox virus, infectious mononucleosis virus (EBV) and others can affect the liver.

Non-viral forms of hepatitis can be caused by drugs or chemicals, such as alcohol, or autoimmune processes. Alcoholic hepatitis is slow in onset but often fatal and cannot be reversed except by transplantation. Some parasites and bacteria can also cause hepatitis as a secondary effect.

About 26,000 Americans die each year from chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis. Deaths from liver and gallbladder diseases in 1993 reached 51,532, making hepatitis the seventh leading disease that causes death. It is estimated that approximately 75 to 80 percent of cirrhosis cases could be prevented by eliminating alcohol abuse.

In 1994, an estimated 33,200 people were infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). There are an estimated 3.9 million people chronically infected with hepatitis C, and about 12,000 die from it each year. The CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) estimate that annual deaths from hepatitis C will increase to 38,000 by 2010. Hepatitis B is responsible for 5,000 deaths annually: 3,000 to 4,000 from cirrhosis, 1,000 to 1,500 from primary liver cancer and 350 to 450 from fulminant, or severe, hepatitis.

Fitness and Diving: These diseases are serious and have variable infectivity. The fecal-oral or water-borne route can spread only hepatitis A and E. The oral route may transmit hepatitis B: the virus may be excreted in saliva. The most common symptoms are fatigue, mild fever, muscle or joint aches, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, vague abdominal pain and sometimes diarrhea. Many cases go undiagnosed because the symptoms suggest a flu-like illness or may be very mild or absent. As a result, individuals with acute or chronic active hepatitis should not dive.

Medication Used in Treatment: Until recently, there has been no way to treat hepatitis viral infection. Interferon alpha-2b produces a remission of the disease in 30-40 percent of persons with chronic hepatitis B and 20-25 percent of those infected with chronic hepatitis C. However, once individuals stop taking the drug, 50 to 80 percent of them will suffer a relapse. Only 10 percent of hepatitis B cases are cleared of the virus.

For treatment of hepatitis C, another drug, ribavirin, is currently pending with the Food and Drug Administration. However, several available vaccines can prevent hepatitis B. They are all safe and effective, and they seem to prevent infection if begun within a few days of exposure.
Some types of cirrhosis can be treated, but often there is no cure. At this point, treatment is mostly supportive and may include a strict diet, diuretics, vitamins and abstinence from alcohol.

No Comments


Categories

 2019
 2018
 2016
Accidents After anaesthesia Air Quality Air exchange centre Air hose failure Altitude changes Altitude sickness Ama divers Anaerobic Metabolism Annual renewal Apnea Apnoea Arterial gas embolism Arthroscopic surgery Aurel hygiene BCD Back adjustment Back pain Back treatment Backextensors Badages Bag valve mask Bandaids Barbell back squat Bench press Blood flow Bone fractures Bouyancy compensators Boyle's Law Boyle\'s Law Bradycardia Brain Breast Cancer Breath Hold Diving Breath hold Breath-hold Breathing Gas Breathing Broken bones Bruising Buoyancy Burnshield CGASA CMAS CO2 Cabin pressure Camera settings Cancer Remission Cancer treatments Cancer Cannabis and diving Cannabis Cape Town Dive Festival Cape Town Carbon dioxide Cardio health Cardiomyopathy Chamber Safety Chamber science Charles' Law Charles\' Law Charles\\\' Law Charles\\\\\\\' Law Charles\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\' Law Chemotherapy Chiropractic Citizen Conservation Cleaning products Coastalexcursion Cold Water Cold care Cold Compressed gas Conservation Contaminants Contaminated air Corals Courtactions Crohns disease Crystal build up Crystallizing hoses Cutaneous decompression DAN Courses DAN Profile DAN Researchers DAN medics DAN report DCI DCS Decompressions sickness DCS theories DCS DM training DReams Dalton's Law Dalton\'s Law Dalton\\\'s Law Dalton\\\\\\\'s Law Dalton\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Law Deco dives Decompression Illness Decompression Sickness Decompression illsnes Decompression treatment Decompression Diaphragms Diseases Dive Chamber Dive Industry Dive Instruction Dive Instructor Dive Pros Dive Research Dive Training Dive Travel Dive accidents Dive buddies Dive computers Dive excursions Dive gear Dive health Dive medicines Dive medicine Dive operators Dive safety Dive staff Diveleader training Diveleaders Diver Profile Diver infliencers Divers Alert Diving Kids Diving Trauma Diving career Diving emergencies Diving guidelines Diving injuries Diving suspended Diving Dizziness Domestic Donation Dowels Dr Rob Schneider Drysuit diving Drysuit valves Drysuits EAPs EAP Ear pressure Ear wax Ears injuries Education Emergency action planning Emergency decompression Emergency plans Emergency underwater Oxygen Recompression Emergency Enviromental Protection Environmental factors Environmental impact Environmental managment Equipment care Evacuations Evacuation Evaluations Exercise Exhaustion Extended divetime Extinguisher Extreme treatments Eye injuries FAQ Failures Fatigue Faulty equipment Fire Coral Fire Safety Firefighting First Aid Equipment First Aid Training First Aid kits Fish Fitness to dive Fitness Flying Francois Burman Free Student cover Free diving Free flow Freedive Training Freediver Freediving performance Gas Density Gas laws Gas mixes GasPerformance Gases Gastric bypass Gear Servicing Gordon Hiles HELP HIRA Haemorhoid treatment Hazard Description Hazardous Marine life Hazardous marinelife Health practitioner Heart Attack Heart Health Heart Rate monitor Heart rate Heart Heat stress Helium High temperatures Hip strength Hot Humans Hydrate Hydration Hydrogen Hydroids Hydrostatic pressure Hyperbaric Chamber Hyperbaric research Hypothermia Immine systems In Water Recompression Indemnity form Indian Ocean Indonesia Inert gas Infections Instinct Instruction Instructors Insurance Integrated Physiology International travel International Irritation Joint pain Kidneys Kids scubadiver Labour laws Learning to dive Legal advice Legislation Leukemis Liability Risks Liability releases Liability Life expectancy Lifestyle Low blood pressure Low pressure deterioration Low volume masks Lung function Lung injuries Lung surgery Lung MOD Maintenance Mammalian Dive Response Mammalian effect Marine Scientists Marine parks Marinelife Master scuba diver Maximum operating depth Medical Q Medical emergencies Medical questionaire Medical statement Middle ear pressure Mike Bartick Military front press Mixed Gas Mono Fins Mooring lines More pressure Motion sickness Muscle pain Mycobacterium marinum Nausea Nautilus Nitrogen build up Nitrox No-decompression Non-rebreather Mask Normal Air Nosebleeds O2 providers O2 servicing OOxygen maintenance Ocean pollution Open water divers Orbital implants Oronasal mask Oxygen Cylinder Oxygen Units Oxygen deficit Oxygen deicit Oxygen ears Oxygen equipment Oxygen masks Oxygen supply Oxygen therapy Oxygen P J Prinsloo PFI PJP Tech Part 3 Phillipines Photography Pistons Planning Plastic Pneumonia Pneumothorax Pollution Pool Diving Preparation Prepared diver Press Release Professional rights Provider course Pulmanologist Pulmonary Bleb Punture wounds Purge RAID South Africa RCAP Radio communications Range of motion Rashes Recompression chamber Recompression treatment Recompression Recycle Regulator failure Regulators Regulator Remote areas Renewable Report incidents Rescue training Resume diving Risk Assessments Risk assesments Risk assessment Risk elements Risk management SABS 019 Safety Stop Safety Saturation Diving Save our seas Science Scuba Air Quality Scuba Injury Scuba Instructor Scuba children Scuba dive Scuba health Scubalearners Sealife Shoulder strength Sideplank Signs and Symptoms Skin Bends Skin outbreak Skin rash Snorkeling Snorkels Sodwana Bay South Africa Spinal pain Splits Squeezes Standars Step ups Stroke Sulawesi Supplemental oxygen Surgeries Surgery TRavel safety Tattoes Technical Diving The Bends The truth Thermal Notions Tides Tips and trick Transplants Travel tips Travel Tweezers Unconsciousness Underwater photographer Underwater pho Vaccines Vagus nerve Valsalva manoeuvers Vape Vaping Vasvagal Syncope Venting Volatile fuels Washout treatments Wastewater Water Weakness Weigang Xu West Papua Wetsuit fitting Wetsuits White balance Winter Woman in diving Work of Breathing Wound dressings Wreck dive Wreckdiving Youth diver abrasion air-cushioned alert diver altitude anemia antibiotics antiseptics bandages bent-over barbell rows body art breathing air calories burn cardiovascular checklist chemo port child clearances closed circuit scuba currents cuts dead lift decompression algorithms decongestants dehydration dive injuries dive medicing dive ready child dive reflex dive tribe diver rescue diver training dive diving attraction doctors domestic travel dri-suits dry mucous membranes dry suits dry e-cigarettes ear spaces elearning electrolyte imbalance electroytes emergency action plans emergency assessment equalizing exposure injuries eyes fEMAL DIVERS fire rescue fitnes flexible tubing frediving gas bubble health hospital humidity immersion pulmonary edema (IPE join DAN knee longevity lower stress marine pathogens medical issues medical procedures medical risk assesment mental challenge micro-organisims minor illness mucous membranes nasal steroids nasal nematocysts newdivers nitrogen bubbles off-gassed operating theatre operations orthopeadic outgas pain perforation phillippines physical challenges pinched nerves plasters polyester-TPU polyether-TPU post dive preserve prevention pulmunary barotrauma rebreather mask rebreathers retinal detachment risk areas safety stops saturation scissors scuba equipment scuba single use sinus infections smoking snorkeling. spearfishing stings strength sub-aquatic swimmers ears tattoo care tecnical diver thermal protection training trimix unified standards vision impaired warmers water quality